New Robotic Approaches In ENT surgery

Byung-Ju Yi
Byung-Ju Yi
Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, Hanyang University, Korea
December 6, 2012, 11:10 ~ 11:50

Abstract :

Purpose of surgical robot is to provide new capabilities that transcend human limitation in surgery, increase consistency and quality of surgical treatments, and promote better outcomes and more cost- effective processes in surgical practice. The primary objective is not to replace the technical work or surgeons, but rather assist them in performing difficult tasks more accurately, and repetitive tasks more precisely. Motion-scaling and filtering allows for increased precision and reduced tremor. Immersive 3D visualization and use of dexterous instruments allow minimally invasive, precision surgery. Future direction is to design improved end effectors, full haptic and tactile feedback, surgical global positioning systems (GPS), modular design for rapid setup and breakdown, and reduced size and markedly reduced cost of surgical robots. Currently, many researches to develop future surgical robots are being conducted all over the world. However, tight collaboration among clinician, engineers, and company is required to come up with a successful surgical robot. This lecture introduces some results produced by collaboration of clinicians and engineers at Hanyang University. Specifically, the ENT area is of interest. Skull-based image- guided micro robotic surgery is the main goal of this research. Three different surgical procedures will be shortly introduced. Firstly, an image-guided robotic Mastoidectomy is presented. A surgical navigation software was developed to guide the robot without damaging the affected area. A forbidden-region virtual fixture is implemented for safety. A human-robot collaboration control mode is used to allow the human intervention during surgery, to compensate tremor by operator, and to protect the human organ on surgery. A temporal bone replica was used as the phantom of the robotic Mastoidectomy. Through the phantom studies, it is shown that the image-guided robotic approach is effective for safe and precise Mastoidectomy. Three different types of robotic systems for Otologic surgery are presented. Secondly, a new endoscope robot system is introduced for general sinus surgery. The proposed endoscope can be bent in accordance with a user’s intension at the time of inserting the endoscope into the sinus area, and it was designed to be bent up to 180 degrees and its diameter is about 4mm. The design of the proposed endoscope uses a spring backbone, which allows flexibility of the mechanism. A design method to determine design parameters for this device is proposed. The performance of the proposed system is verified by integration of the robot device and simulator. As an extension work, a dual robotic system consisting of the endoscope robot and a new 4-DOF biopsy robot is also presented. Thirdly, a new trans-oral robotic system is presented. Suspension laryngoscopy has been employed to operate on laryngeal diseases such as polyp, cystoma, and granuloma. After securing a straight path by the laryngoscope, a surgeon inserts straight instruments and look inside the target legion by using a microscope. However, many of patients suffer from secondary complications due to the use of the hard laryngoscope, and even about 11~12% of patients who don’t allow the straight path anatomically cannot be operated on the surgery using laryngoscope. To cope with such a problem, this work proposes Laryngeal Surgical Assistant Robot (LASAR) system which employs a curved frame as a guide to insert flexible instruments into the target legion. A master-slave robotic system has been developed and the performance of the proposed robot was tested by using a phantom laryngeal model of the human body.


Research Area :



Honors and Awards :

  • Best paper award: Korea Robot Society, 2008
  • Best paper award: International Conference on Advanced Mechatronics, 2010
  • Best Application Paper award: IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2011

Professional Career(highlight) :

  • 1991: Ph. D. The University of Texas, Austin
  • 2007: Program Co-Chair for ICMA2007 (IEEE conference on Mechatronics and Automation)
  • 2009: General chair for URAI 2009 (Ubiquitous Robots and Ambient Intelligence)
  • 2005-2008: Associate Editor of IEEE Transaction on Robotics